What is Chopper?
A chopper is a static device that converts fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output voltage directly.Â A chopper is a high-speed on/off semiconductor switch. It connects source to load and disconnects the load from source at high-speed.Â Also known as dc-to-dc converter.Â Widely used for motor control.Â Also used in regenerative braking.
Types of Chopper:
â€¢ Step-up choppers.
In step up chopper output voltage is more than input voltage.
â€¢ Step-down choppers.
In step down chopper output voltage is less than input voltage.
Basic Block Diagram of Chopper:
Figure below shows the basic block diagram of chopper.
Basic principal behind the chopper is it converts Fix DC input voltage to Variable DC output voltage.
Low power application: GTO, IGBT, Power BJT, Power MOSFET etc.
High power application: Thyristor or SCR.
Applications of Chopper:
â€¢ They are used for DC motor control (battery-supplied vehicles), solar energy conversion and wind energy conversion.
â€¢ Choppers are used in electric cars, airplanes and spaceships, where onboard-regulated DC power supplies are required.
â€¢ In general, Chopper circuits are used as power supplies in computers, commercial electronics, and electronic instruments.
â€¢ DC Motor Speed Control
â€¢ Battery Chargers
â€¢ DC Voltage Boosting
â€¢ Battery Operated Electric Cars